Although modern science has come a long way in understanding the laws of nature, there are quite a few things that scientists simply cannot explain. These seemingly simple questions are yet to be answered by the scientific community out there:
Why some mammals returned back to water?
Science claims that some marine animals in evolution have limbs that allowed them to move on land. Why did some of these creatures, the ancestors of whales and seals, moved back into the water? It is much more difficult for terrestrial animals to return to the sea from an evolutionary perspective than vice versa. This is what puzzles scientists all over the world.
Cows always turn north or south while grazing
Usually, no one looks at grazing cows. When a team of scientists carefully studied thousands of satellite images of Google Earth, it was discovered an unknown fact for millennia. Cows always turn their heads to the Earth’s magnetic poles (north or south) when they graze or rest. This remains the same regardless of wind or other factors. No one knows why this happens. Although it has long been known that some animals have an “internal compass,” this is the first time this has been found in large mammals. It is also strange that the closer the cows are to the poles, the less accurate they are. This phenomenon is observed on all continents of the Earth.
Alkaloids in plants
Plants often produce substances that have a rather strange effect on the animals that eat them. These substances are called alkaloids, and one of their most common types is morphine. In total, scientists have identified about 7,000 different types of alkaloids in plants. Although modern science has been able to study these chemicals in detail, why they began to be produced in plants is a mystery. Some believe that, in addition to external causes (such as protecting plants from herbivores), alkaloids can help regulate the metabolism of the plants themselves.
The abundance of flowers
Flowering plants are found all over the world, regardless of climate. Which is quite interesting; it wasn’t always like that. Flowers about 400 million years ago quickly supplanted other species of flora, and today they make up about 90 percent of all plant species. Charles Darwin tried to solve this problem all his life, calling it a “terrible secret.” The rapid development of flowers shortly after their appearance on Earth contradicted the theory of slow evolution through natural selection.
Why equator harbors more lives?
When traveling from polar areas of the planet to the equator, it is easy to notice that life becomes more diverse. Prussian researcher Alexander von Humboldt discovered that biodiversity increases as it approaches the equator, with nature, human culture, and diseases becoming more distinct. For example, every time new terrible viral infections appear in Africa or South America, just near the equator. About three dozen theories are explaining this phenomenon, but they often contradict each other.
The Phytoplankton paradox
Phytoplankton is a class of organisms found in large bodies of water and includes a wide range of different subspecies. Essentially, these are floating plants that are found all over the world. The vast diversity of these organisms calls into question the theory of evolution and natural selection. Lack of resources makes it impossible for so many different organisms to survive in the ecosystem. Yet, they do exist.
How Argentine ants create colonies on different continents?
Argentine ants, at first glance, are no different from other members of this species. But they are the only inhabitants of the Earth, except man, who managed to colonize three continents. All three supercolonies of Argentine ants in Europe, South America, and Asia are inhabited by ants with the same genetic traits and are essentially the same population.
But it puzzles scientists not so much their habitat as the social structure. Argentine ants recognize their counterparts from other continents but are aggressive towards ants of different species. In addition, the modern genetic code of ants has not changed for thousands of years. This is surprising because organisms outside their native environment tend to change rapidly.
The mysterious human ancestor
The pedigree of modern man has been carefully studied for many years. Although the first humans appeared a long time ago, today, scientists have a pretty good idea of the ancestors of Homo sapiens. At least that’s how it seemed until scientists discovered traces of a whole new species of ancient human ancestors. When scientists examined the DNA of the Denisovan man, they found traces of an unknown species that could not be identified.
It is worth noting the Denisovans themselves are surrounded by mystery. Still, science at least knows who they were and where they came from. The same cannot be said of the unknown species, which clearly multiplied Denisovan people about 30,000 years ago and left a clear trace in the DNA of Denisovans. In principle, all that is known about this form is that he gave Denisovans a strange set of teeth, which is nowhere else in the animal world.
Animals that can live without oxygen
Almost every organism on Earth needs oxygen – some living organisms consume it, and others produce it. Recently, scientists announced a shocking find – deep in the Mediterranean Sea, the first oxygenless animals. While some bacteria and other protozoa organisms can live without oxygen, this has previously been unheard of for complex multicellular animals. Three species of such creatures belonging to the marine invertebrate group of loricyfers were found at a depth of 3.5 km. Scientists have no idea how they evolved.
In addition to some microbes and plants, almost all living things in the world reproduce sexually. People take it for granted, but it’s actually a significant evolutionary anomaly. After all, half of all species (males) cannot produce offspring but use the same amount of resources from the environment. Why has so much effort been spent to develop a mechanism that has obvious flaws in the long run? Therefore, sexual relations are still a phenomenon that scientists are not able to fully understand.